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新SAT写作评分标准解析 高分文章应具备的条件

时间:2016-11-03 13:04   来源:滴答教育网  作者admin 点击:   返回首页

  在新SAT Essay的评分中,将分数分成了三个维度:Reading,Analysis和Writing。这里,我们通过对于评分标准进行简要分析,来看一篇高分的Writing应该具备的条件。

  在新SAT Essay的评分中,将分数分成了三个维度:Reading,Analysis和Writing。这里,我们通过对于评分标准进行简要分析,来看一篇高分的Writing应该具备的条件。

  下图是SAT Essay评分标准关于Wring部分的要求(依次为4分,3分,2分):

  我们对评分标准中的每一条进行对比分析:

  4:The response includes a precise central claim.

  3:The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.

  2:The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the response.

  通过对比我们看到,新SAT Essay要求有一个明确的precise central claim, 这个claim就是原文作者的观点。对于这个观点,同学们其实大可不必担心,因为在每篇文章后面的prompt中会明确给出作者的claim,如OG中的文章:

  上图中划线部分就是文章中作者所要表述的观点,各位同学记住一定要对这个观点进行paraphrase而不是直接copy哦!

  我们看一组例子:

  GOOD: It is crucial that news organizations increase the amount of foreign news coverage provided to Americans.

  BAD: This is an article talking about foreign news.

  4:The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effectiveprogression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

  3:The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion.The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas bothwithin paragraphs and throughout the essay.

  2:The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion.The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response.

  通过对比我们可以看出,新SAT Essay要求学生在写作中包含a skillful introduction and conclusion,什么样的introduction和conclusion才是好的呢?我们不仅需要包含上一条评分标准中的claim,还要说明作者如何去论证自己的观点,下面就是一个很好的例子:

  Peter S. Goodman builds a solid argument for the growing need for foreign news coverage and utilizes concrete evidence, logical reasoning and persuasive appeals to not only expose the paucity of international news needs, but also convince his audience that it is crucial that news organizations increase the amount of foreign news coverage provided to Americans.

  在具体分析作者的论证过程中,还需要注意文章的progression,使用恰当的transitional words是一种有效的方式,如:

  Goodman begins by clearly laying out;

  Goodman closes his argument;

  4:The response has wide variety in sentence structures.The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

  3:The response has variety in sentence structures.The response demonstrates some precise word choice.The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

  2:The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone.

  通过对比我们可以看出,新SAT Essay要求学生在写作中有多变的句式和精确的词汇选择。但同学们要注意的是,多变的句式并不意味着全文充斥着倒装句、强调句式等,SAT OG中明确指出,需要avoid a simple, repetitive subject-verb structure,如:

  Peter S. Goodman offers … ;

  He appeals … ;

  Goodman gives … ;

  He talks ….

  这种单一的主谓结构会使得文章枯燥,我们可以合理的使用从句、非谓语动词和介词短语等完成考试中要求的句式变化,如:

  While one might view this as selfish, Summers reassures the reader that they are not alone in feeling this way

  Further contributing to his argument, …

  同样,精确的词汇选择并不意味着复杂的单词,而是能够准确地表述意思的表达,如下面就是OG中给出的precise word choice: dramatic decline, discuss the context of the decrease, uses this irony, hones in on examples, make a more powerful impression on the reader, appeals to the individual, always referencing the practical need.

  最后,评分标准中提到a formal style and objective tone,也就是说在写作中不可以给出自己的观点,而且尽量避免口语化的表达。

  4:The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors.

  3:The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.

  2:The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding.

  评分标准中最后提到的就是语言的规范,也就是语言表达的正确性,可以看到,4分的文章几乎没有语言表达错误,3分的文章没有大的语言表达错误(其实还是存在一些小的错误),2分的作文就存在很多语言错误了。同学们容易犯的错误主要有:Spelling Mistakes,Syntactically awkward sentences,Run-on sentences,Sentence fragment等。

  总的来说,新SAT Essay在Writing的评分中希望考试做到:

  1.Make a claim.

  2.Organize your argument.

  3.Switch up your sentences.

  4.Choose smart words.

  5.Use an academic tone.

  6.Use good grammar.


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